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The maximum oxidation service temperatures for heat resisting steels is shown ‘for guidance only’ in table B.2 of EN 10095.
Although helpful, this only covers the steels specifically designed for heat resisting applications.
An alternative guide is shown in the ASM Specialty Handbook ‘Stainless Steels’, where a wider range of stainless steel grades is covered.
A comparison of these maximum service temperatures under intermittent or cyclic oxidation conditions (where protective oxide films produced may be likely to crack, hence reducing the useful service life) is summarised in this article, but it must be stressed that, these figures can only be used for guidance.
Selection of stainless steels for oxidation resistant service should also consider the the design strength requirements at the intended service temperature.
There are some apparent contradictions in the data, where EN 10095 suggests that the 321 type (1.4541 / 1.4878) is ‘inferior’ to the 316 and 304 types, as shown in the ASM data.
Based on the chromium content of these three types, the maximum service temperatures would be expected to be the same.
(The titanium stabilised 321 type would in fact normally be preferred, as its elevated temperature strength should be marginally better.)
The ferritic types may be limited, in practice, to lower temperatures as they have lower strengths at elevated temperatures than the austenitic types. The ferritic types can also suffer from embrittlement with extended exposure to temperatures above about 450oC.
Duplex stainless steels can also be prone to embrittlement and so although their chromium levels would suggest they may be useful steels for elevated temperature service. This steel family is limited in the European pressure vessel standard EN 10028-7 to a maximum temperature of 250oC.
The martensitic types are not considered here.
These steels are usually selected for their hardness and strength, which will be reduced when their tempering heat treatment temperature is exceeded, thus limiting their usefulness for elevated temperature service.
|Grade||Main Alloying Elements (%)||Max. Service Temp. oC||Source|
|.||1.4724||12||1.0 Al||850||EN 10095|
|.||1.4742||17||1.0 Al||1000||EN 10095|
|446||1.4749||26||0.15-0.20 C, 0.2 N||1100||EN 10095|
|.||1.4878||18||9 Ni||850||EN 10095|
|316||1.4401||17||11 Ni, 2 Mo||870||ASM|
|309||1.4833||22||12 Ni||1000||EN 10095|
|310||1.4845||25||20 Ni||1050||EN 10095|
|.||1.4835||20||10 Ni, 1.5 Si, 0.15 N, 0.04 Ce||1150||EN 10095|
|330||1.4886||18||34 Ni, 1.0 Si||1100||EN 10095|