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This paper was presented at the seminar ‘Materials in Contact with Drinking Water’, organised for the Water Treatment & Environmental Management Industry in Leeds in June 2002. A review of the approval of stainless steels to the DWI Regulation 25 and the eventual publication of the DWI Operational Guidelines and Code of Practice for Stainless Steel Products in Drinking Water Supply is discussed. The importance of material selection, design, fabrication and maintenance and inspection for the successful application of stainless steels in drinking water applications is outlined, before a more in depth discussion of the approval process for stainless steel is covered.
Background information on the sources of chlorides within insulation materials is mentioned. The use of paint and aluminium foil barrier methods between the steel shell and insulation layer as a method of eliminating the risk of corrosion to the steel is also outlined.
This article provides a link to the Outokumpu web-site.This provides a web based version of the tables published as the ‘Outokumpu Stainless Corrosion Handbook’. The chemical compatibility of a range of stainless steel types with a large range of acids, bases, compounds, some foodstuffs and liquid metals can be assessed using these tables. Tables include acetic acid, acetone, aluminium chloride and sulphate, ammonium bisulphite, bromide, carbonate, fluoride and chloride, benzene, beryllium chloride, boron trichloride, bromine, calcium chloride, carbon tetrachloride, chloric acid, chlorine, chlorine dioxide, chlorobenzene, chloroform, chromic acid, (chromium trioxide), cobalt sulphate, copper acetate and cyanide, ether, ethyl alcohol, ethylene bromide, fluorine, formaldehyde, formic acid, glucose, glycerine, glycol, hydrobromic acid, hydrogen chloride gas, hydrogen iodide and peroxide, hydrogen peroxide, iodine, iron, (ferrous and ferric), chloride, iron nitrate, lactic acid, lead nitrate, lithium chloride, magnesium sulphate, malic acid, mercury, methyl alcohol, methylene chloride, nickel chloride, nitrous acid, oxalic acid, perchloric acid, phenol, potassium bisulphate, chlorate and dichromate, silver bromide, sodium bicarbonate, chlorate, citrate, hydroxide, hypochlorite, perborate, perchlorate, phosphate, silicate, thiosulphate, stannic, (tin), chloride, sulphamic acid, sulphur, sulphurous acid, sugar, tannic acid, (tannin), tartaric acid, textile dyes, toluene, trichloroethylene, urea, urine, vinegar, xylene, zinc and zirconium oxychloride. This data was originally compiled jointly in Sweden by technical specialists at Avesta and Sandvik.
Is there a COSHH, (Control of Substances Hazardous to Health), information data sheet generally available for stainless steels to outline any risks associated with its handling, fabrication and use.
The compositions, (chemical analysis), of cutlery and holloware steel types 18/8, (18.8 or 18-8), 18/10, (18.10 or 18-10) and 18/0 are described. The use of these austenitic and ferritic stainless steels for cutlery is briefly outlined and compared to the martensitic stainless steels. LAST UPDATED 1st February 2001
Life expectancy is estimated from pitting depth measurements made on exposed test samples. The results depend on steel grade, environment and surface finish. Staining from micro pitting may result in rejection of the steel on aesthetic grounds, long before pitting has perforated it. Steel types 430, (ferritic), 304 and 316, (austenitic), are considered. (104)
A guide to EN 1090 for stainless steel related issues
The European ‘ELV’ directive 2000/53/EC should not have a detrimental affect on stainless steels intended for applications in automobiles. Analysis work done so far shows that the levels of lead, mercury and cadmium are well below the levels currently understood to be the limits. Stainless steels do not contain hexavalent chromium and so this requirement is not relevant.
The RFCS project “Structural Applications of Ferritic Stainless Steels”, (“SAFSS”), was completed in 2014. The project consortium included the Euro Inox members Acerinox, Aperam and Outokumpu. The Steel Construction Institute was entrusted with the project management. The other partners were the Slovenian research laboratory IMTL, structural engineers Ove Arup and Partners, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya and Finnish think tank VTT.
Stainless steels do not have an intrinsic ‘fire rating’. Tests to assess fire resistance are performed on specific fabrications under precise conditions to BS476 parts 20, 21, (load-bearing elements), and 22, (non-load-bearing elements). Fire tests results on some specific products demonstrate the good fire resisting properties of stainless steels in building and ship bulkhead applications. (186)
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