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Grades 1.4301, (304), 1.4401, (316), and 430, (1.4016), are compared for food contact applications. A list of typical applications for martensitic 1.4028, (420), and 1.4116, ferritic, 1.4016, (430), austenitic, 1.4301, (304), 1.4401, (316) and 1.4539, (904L), austenitic 1.4362 and 1.4462, (2205), duplex and 1.4547, (254SMO), superaustenitic types is presented. Corrosion hazards in food applications, i.e. pitting crevice and stress corrosion cracking are discussed. Suitable cleaning and disinfection systems should avoid the use of hypochlorite or chloride solutions.
Localised corrosion mechanisms pitting, crevice and stress corrosion cracking are mentioned, but normally stainless steels are considered “inert” in supply, (or town’s), waters. The affect of chloride levels, temperature, oxygen levels, flow rates and bacterial oxidants, i.e. chlorine on the resistance of stainless steels in waters is discussed. Crevice corrosion should be rare at chloride levels below 200 and 1000 ppm. (mg/lt), respectively for 304, (1.4301 / 1.4307), and 316, (1.4401 / 1.4404), types. Water chloride ranges for duplex 1.4462, (2205), super austenitic 254SMO, (1.4547), and super duplex types SAF2507, (1.4410), and Zeron 100, (1.4501), are also shown.
Article by Tony Newson, AvestaPolarit. (This article first appeared in Business Briefing: Medical Device Manufacturing & Technology 2002, published by World Markets Research Centre, London www.wmrc.com). The application of austenitic, martensitic and precipitation hardening stainless steel types in medical implant and dental and surgical instruments is discussed. The special implant grades to ISO 5832 are compared to more commonly recognisable ISO 7153-1 instrument grades, used where body contact is only transient. A comparison of electropolished and mechanically polished finishes for stainless steel medical devices is made. The reusability and recycling issues are discussed in relation to single use instruments where the spread of infection is a possible risk.
This Health and Safety Executive Sector Information Minute SIM 5/2002/18 outlines the background to stress corrosion cracking failure hazards to stainless steel items used in indoor swimming poll buildings. This follows on from roof failures in Switzerland in 1985 and more recently in the Netherlands and notes that the atmospheres of indoor swimming pool buildings are amongst the most aggressive ones found in building interiors, where stainless steels are used. The minute discusses the background, noting the effects of chlorine based water disinfection systems and the chloramines generated by body fluid excretions on stainless steel components under applied or residual tensile stress. The stress corrosion process is outlined and the susceptibility of grades 1.4301, (304), and 1.4401, (316), to SCC in swimming pool environments noted. Preventative measures, inspection procedures and recommended actions for HSE inspectors are also covered.
Structural stainless steel sections are being used increasingly as the particular characteristics of stainless steel are more widely understood. This article provides a link to the Stainless Steel Sections Directory which shows data on the sections available and the potential suppliers of such sections
(This copyright material originally appeared in CONCRETE, March 2003, and is reported by permission of The Concrete Society, Century House, Telford Avenue, Crowthorne, Berkshire RG45 6YS, UK.) The Highways Agency code BA 84/02, Use of stainless steel reinforcement in highway structures is briefly outlined. Where stainless and carbon steel bars are in contact, it is noted that there is no need for electrical insulation as tests have shown that there is negligible galvanic, (bimetallic), reaction in concrete. European stainless steel reinforcement bar producers are obtaining UK CARES certification. The implementation of BA 84/02 along with the latest issue, (2001), of BS 6744 for bridge structures is discussed. Finally examples of the successful application of stainless steel reinforcement are given. The relevance of BS 8666 to the bending of stainless steel is noted.
The resistance to sulphur containing gasses is related to chromium content, in the same way as oxidation. High sulphur level fuel oils are not normally considered hazardous to stainless steels. Sulphur dioxide, hydrogen and hydrogen sulphide liquid sulphur and sulphur vapour environments are discussed.
Terne coatings are hot dip lead-tin alloys on a stainless steel substrate strip. Alternatively electroplated tin coatings are allowed by EN 502 and EN 508-3. The strip thicknesses are usually between 0.4 and 0.8mm. The main application for terne and tin-coated strip is external cladding and roofing.
Originally presented at the BSSA Conference ‘Stainless Solutions for a Sustainable Future’ held in Rotherham on 3rd April 2003
The potential use of stainless steel for roofing has only recently become more widely recognised, despite an early example of the use of stainless steel for the art deco spire of the Chrysler Building in New York, completed in 1930. In addition to a growing appreciation of stainless steel as an architectural material, other factors such as the introduction of low reflective, matt finishes and the development of improved methods of construction have played an important part in this process.