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Forming, Machining & Heat Treatment (page 2)

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  1. Casting (4)
  2. Cold Forming-Bending & Springback (7)
  3. Cold Forming-Drawing & Pressing (6)
  4. Cutting & Profiling (4)
  5. Heat Treatment-Ferritic, Aust. & Duplex (10)
  1. Heat Treatment-Martensitic & PPN Harden. (4)
  2. Hot Forming-Forging/Section Bending (2)
  3. Machining & Free Machining Grades (6)
  4. Pre & Post Weld Heat Treatment (1)
  5. Stainless Steelmaking (3)

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  1. Elevated and sub-zero temperature mechanical properties of stainless steels to BS EN 10272

    BS EN 10272 is the material standard for stainless steel bars for pressure purposes. The elevated and sub-zero temperature mechanical properties shown in this article include 0.2% proof, tensile and impact, (Charpy), strengths. Generally, the grades included have the same chemical compositions as bar grades specified in BS EN 10088-3, which also tabulates their ambient temperature mechanical properties. The exception is grade 1.4951 which was added in the 2007 edition of the spec. Recommended annealing heat treatment temperatures for the steels covered are also tabulated.

  2. Elevated temperature mechanical properties for stainless steels specified in BS EN 10028-7

    PLEASE NOTE THAT PREVIOUS VERSIONS OF THIS ARTICLE HAD A SIGNIFICANT ERROR IN THE VALUES SHOWN FOR PROOF STRENGTHS OF DUPLEX STAINLESS STEELS. THE PRESENT ARTICLE HAS BEEN THOROUGHLY REVISED TO REFLECT THE VALUES GIVEN IN THE STANDARD. Design tensile stress values at temperatures up to 550°C are tabulated for all ferritic, martensitic and duplex types covered in the BS EN 10028-7 standard. Space limits the range of austenitic grades that can be conveniently displayed and so only a selection of some of the more ‘common’ the austenitic grade properties are included. Recommended annealing heat treatment temperatures for the steels covered are also tabulated.

  3. End of life vehicles (ELV) European directive on lead, mercury, cadmium and hexavalent chromium

    The European ‘ELV’ directive 2000/53/EC should not have a detrimental affect on stainless steels intended for applications in automobiles. Analysis work done so far shows that the levels of lead, mercury and cadmium are well below the levels currently understood to be the limits. Stainless steels do not contain hexavalent chromium and so this requirement is not relevant.

  4. Fabricating Duplex Stainless Steel

    Duplex Stainless Steels are growing at a high rate. It is important to understand how they differ from the more familiar stainless steels and how these differences affect the fabrication methods and parameters

  5. Forming & Fabrication Techniques for Stainless Steels

    Forming methods are discussed and include cutting, sawing, shearing, plasma cutting, blanking, punching, piercing, bending, drawing, spinning and tube bending. A minimum bend radius of 2 times tube diameter is quoted as a guide. Extra force is required for these operations when working with austenitic stainless steels due to their tendency to work harden.

  6. Forming techniques for stainless steel (1) bending

    Stainless steel can be formed in the same way and using the same type of equipment as for most types of steel. The high work hardening rates of austenitic stainless steels means that power and tool/machinery rigidity requirements are higher than for carbon steels. The techniques for bending flat material and tubes are discussed.

  7. Forming techniques for stainless steel (2) drawing and spinning

    Stainless steel can be formed in the same way and using the same type of equipment as for most types of steel. The high work hardening rates of austenitic stainless steels means that tool/machinery capability and rigidity requirements are higher than for carbon steels. The techniques for drawing and spinning are discussed.

  8. Free machining stainless steels grades

    Sulphur, selenium and calcium treated improved machinability stainless steels are compared. European steel numbers for these grades are listed and include 1.4005, 1.4006, 1.4021, 1.4028, 1.4029, 1.4031, 1.4057, 1.4112, 1.4125, 1.4542, 1.4305, 1.4307, 1.4541, 1.4401, and 1.4404. The former BS grades covered by this article include 416S21, 416S29, 416S37, 416S41, 441S29, 441S49, 303S21, 303S41, 325S21 and 326S36 Grade types 440B, 440C and 17/4PH are also mentioned. The short-comings of these types of steels, compared to the un-treated types is outlined.

  9. Fume associated with welding and cutting stainless steels

    Both flux- and gas-shielded processes for welding stainless steels generate fume. So does plasma arc cutting. Fume consists of both particles and gases, including ozone. Concerns that fume, particularly particles containing hexavalent chromium, is a cause of cancer have not been supported by extensive studies, although there is a slight excess of lung cancers among all welders. Therefore it is sensible to limit contact with welding fume and there are statutory requirements.

  10. General principles of machining stainless steels

    Topics discussed include machine and tooling rigidity, selection of tool materials, (high speed steels or HSS and cemented carbides), tool geometry and sharpness and lubrication and cooling, (mineral and emulsifiable oils).

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