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Environment, Health & Safety (page 2)


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  1. Global Stainless Steel Life Cycle Inventory

    Paper originally delivered at the BSSA Conference ‘Stainless Solutions for a Sustainable Future’ held in Rotherham on 3rd April 2003. ISSF have undertaken the commitment to provide the best possible information to the industry stakeholders in the area of life cycle assessment, delivering transparent and authoritative data on the production of stainless steel from its raw materials. The paper describes the process involved in managing the life cycle inventory building, data presentation, data application and ability of our peers to influence decisions based on a life cycle management principle.

  2. Meeting the Challenge of Sustainability in the Automotive Sector

    Originally presented at the BSSA Conference ‘Stainless Solutions for a Sustainable Future’ held in Rotherham on 3rd April 2003. The paper firstly outlines the sector profile for automotives along with a market overview. It goes on to describe sustainable development looking at competing pressures, developing a vision of sustainable mobility, the sectoral approach and an annual sustainability report.

  3. New Solar and Tidal Technologies

    Paper originally delivered at the BSSA Conference ‘Stainless Solutions for a Sustainable Future’ held in Rotherham on 3rd April 2003. This power point presentation suggests why businesses should be looking towards tidal and solar power and how stainless steel can be used in Renewable Energy. It describes the effectiveness of the applications, the benefits and costs of using renewable energy resources and comments on the future of renew ability and the commercial potential.

  4. Recycling of stainless steel

    Stainless steel products are designed for a long life. Nevertheless, they are readily recycled at the end of their economic life and are a valuable feedstock for the stainless steel producer, thus contributing to sustainable development.

  5. Restriction of hazardous substances (RoHS) and ‘waste electrical and electronic equipment’ (WEEE) directives on the lead, mercury, cadmium and hexavalent chromium content of stainless steels

    The original version of European directive 2002/95/EC effectively out-lawed stainless steels and many other materials as no lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, poly-brominated biphenyls, (PBB), or polybrominated diphenyl ethers, (PBDE), content was to be allowed in materials that would be part of equipment ‘which is dependant on electric current in order to work properly’. This has now been rectified in the Official Journal of the European Union document C(2005) 3143, 2005/618/EC, published on 18th August 2005, allows maximum levels of 0.1% for all these, except cadmium which is 0.01%, which is the same as in the ELV directive. In stainless steels only the restrictions to the elements lead, mercury and cadmium are relevant. Commercially produced stainless steels can be expected to comply with the amended RoHS requirements, without actual values being measured or declared by the steelmaker or supplier.

  6. Safe Use of Nickel in the Workplace

    The Third Edition of Safe Use of Nickel in the Workplace was released in May 2008 to inform downstream users of nickel about the anticipated outcome of the European Nickel Risk

  7. Selection and use of stainless steels for skin contact and body piercing jewellery applications

    The European Directives 76/769/EEC and 94/27/ECC, (12th amendment to 76/769/EEC, dated 30th June 1994), are sometimes referred to as the ‘nickel or jewellery’ directives. There are two separate issues, Body Piercing and Skin Contact. The selection and suitability of stainless steels for these uses is outlined.

  8. Selection of stainless steels for the food processing industries

    Stainless steels are widely used in food and beverage manufacturing and processing industries for manufacture, bulk storage and transportation, preparation and presentation applications. The ‘316’ types are often referred to as the ‘food’ grades. The 304 and 430 types are suitable for food processing and handling, depending on the corrosion resistance required in the particular application. There is no known official classification, or restriction for stainless steels for food industry applications. Duplex types are used in more aggressive environments where there may be a risk of stress corrosion cracking.

  9. Selection of stainless steels for water tank applications

    Stainless steel grades, such as the 304 or 316 types are generally suitable for storing and handling cold or unheated drinking, (town’s), waters. Hot water tanks however may be at risk from stress corrosion cracking, (SCC), Austenitic types such as 304 or 316 can be useful and are used, but in extreme cases the more ‘SCC’ resistant duplex stainless steels should be considered.

  10. Selection of stainless steels in water supply and waste water treatment

    The benefits of stainless steels are given together with guidelines for selection in different chloride levels, good design and fabrication practices, which together will promote optimum corrosion performance.

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