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Grade 316Ti is a 316 type stainless steel, stabilised with titanium to reduce the risk of intergranular corrosion (ICC). The 316L, 1.4404 or 1.4432 grades can be considered as alternative choices. Under most conditions 316Ti and 316L are interchangeable, but the elevated temperature strength, corrosion resistance, machinability, cold-formability and polishing characteristics can affect the final choice of grade.
This article highlights the differences between designing structural components in carbon steel to those in stainless steel. The stress-strain behaviour and mechanical properties are compared and the implications on structural behaviour described. (205)
The compositions, (chemical analysis), of cutlery and holloware steel types 18/8, (18.8 or 18-8), 18/10, (18.10 or 18-10) and 18/0 are described. The use of these austenitic and ferritic stainless steels for cutlery is briefly outlined and compared to the martensitic stainless steels. LAST UPDATED 1st February 2001
Dual certification involving either multiple standards, (EN or ASTM), or standard, e.g. 1.4301 and low carbon, e.g. 1.4307 grades for the same batch of steel is outlined. Full compliance of all product attributes certified on multiple standard certificates is unlikely. The concept of a primary certified standard is outlined.
Duplex stainless steels are becoming more commonly used in a range of applications. This article explains the basic metallurgy and their advantages and disadvantages.
BS EN 10269 is the material standard for stainless and heat-resisting steels, a selection of low alloy steels and some nickel alloys for fasteners. The elevated and sub-zero temperature mechanical properties shown in this article include 0.2% proof, tensile and impact, (Charpy), strengths.
BS EN 10272 is the material standard for stainless steel bars for pressure purposes. The elevated and sub-zero temperature mechanical properties shown in this article include 0.2% proof, tensile and impact, (Charpy), strengths. Generally, the grades included have the same chemical compositions as bar grades specified in BS EN 10088-3, which also tabulates their ambient temperature mechanical properties. The exception is grade 1.4951 which was added in the 2007 edition of the spec. Recommended annealing heat treatment temperatures for the steels covered are also tabulated.
PLEASE NOTE THAT PREVIOUS VERSIONS OF THIS ARTICLE HAD A SIGNIFICANT ERROR IN THE VALUES SHOWN FOR PROOF STRENGTHS OF DUPLEX STAINLESS STEELS. THE PRESENT ARTICLE HAS BEEN THOROUGHLY REVISED TO REFLECT THE VALUES GIVEN IN THE STANDARD. Design tensile stress values at temperatures up to 550°C are tabulated for all ferritic, martensitic and duplex types covered in the BS EN 10028-7 standard. Space limits the range of austenitic grades that can be conveniently displayed and so only a selection of some of the more ‘common’ the austenitic grade properties are included. Recommended annealing heat treatment temperatures for the steels covered are also tabulated.
Young’s modulus and thermal expansion data is tabulated for a range of commonly used grades shown in BS EN 10088-1. More detailed ‘typical’ data follows for austenitic steel types only from the INCO publication ‘Austenitic chromium-nickel stainless steels-engineering properties at elevated temperatures’, including tensile and shear modulus data, Poisson’s ratio, density, thermal expansion, conductivity, specific heat and electrical resistivity.
A guide to EN 1090 for stainless steel related issues